4. Scopes for C/C++ Users

This is an introduction of Scopes for C/C++ users. We are going to highlight commonalities and differences between both languages. At the end of this introduction, you will have a better understanding of how C/C++ concepts translate to Scopes, and which idiosyncrasies to expect.

4.1. Execution

C/C++ requires programs to be built and linked before they can be executed. For this, a build system is typically employed.

In contrast, Scopes’ primary execution mode is live, which means that the compiler remains on-line while the program is running, permitting to compile additional functions on demand, and to use other services provided by the Scopes runtime library. Programs are compiled transparently and cached in the background to optimize loading times. This mechanism is designed to be maintenance-free.

However, Scopes can also build object files compatible with GCC and Clang at runtime using compile-object, which makes it both suitable for classic offline compilation and as foundation for a build system.

When building objects with Scopes, certain restrictions apply. The generated object file has no ties to the Scopes runtime, and so you must not use any first class objects as constants in your program. You may use sc_* functions exported by the Scopes runtime, but must link with libscopesrt to make those symbols available.

4.2. Compiler Errors

At compile time, C/C++ compilers attempt to catch and report as many errors encountered as possible by default, with minimal contextual information provided to prevent bloating the error report further.

In contrast, Scopes terminates compilation at the first error encountered, providing a compiler stack trace highlighting the individual steps in chronological order that have led to this error.

4.3. Runtime Debugging

C/C++ programs are debugged at runtime by using a step debugger like GDB or WinDbg, or by what is commonly referred to as “printf debugging”.

Scopes generates DWARF/COFF debug information for its programs and therefore supports step debuggers like GDB which understand the format. Due to a limitation in LLVM, debug information generated at runtime is currently not available on Windows. Object files are not affected by this limitation.

Two ways of “printf debugging” are provided, the function report, which prints the runtime value of the arguments provided, and the builtin dump, which prints, at compile time, the instruction and type of the arguments provided, allowing to inspect constants and types of variables with inferred type. Both functions prefix their output by the source location of where they were called, so they are easy to remove when the session is over.

4.4. Indentation

As indentation has no significance in C/C++, many indentation styles are known, and they constitute a cherished subject of much discussion and many pointless arguments.

In Scopes, scoping is controlled either by parentheses or indentation. To permit users to freely exchange code without friction, the indentation level is fixed at four spaces outside of parenthesed expressions, and the use of tab characters for indentation is not permitted.

4.5. Symbols

For symbolic tokens that can be used to bind names to values and types, C accepts the character set of 0-9A-Za-z_. This allows users to concatenate many tokens without separating whitespace, such as in x+y.

Instead of a whitelist of permitted characters, Scopes only maintains a blacklist of characters that terminate a symbolic sequence. These characters are the whitespace characters and characters from the set ()[]{}"';#,, where , is in itself a context free symbol.

This means that x+y would be read as a single token. A semantically equivalent expression in Scopes would have to be written as x + y.

4.6. Keywords

C/C++ uses many different declarative forms which are recognized and translated during parsing using specific keywords. Like many other Scheme-likes, Scopes only parses programs as symbolic lists and postpones the interpretation of declarations until the last possible moment, expecting all expressions to follow just one basic form:

# classic braced expression
(head argument1 ... argumentN)
# naked syntax
head argument1 ... argumentN
# naked paragraph form
head argument1 ...
    ...
    argumentN

The value and type of the head controls whether the expression is dispatched to

  • A syntax macro (called a sugar), called at expansion time, which has complete control over which, when and how remaining arguments will be expanded and evaluated, and can either return new symbolic lists to be expanded further, or a template IL.
  • An IL macro (called a spice), called at compile time, which receives typed arguments and can generate new template IL to be specialized.
  • A call expression, equivalent to the head(argument1, ..., argumentN); syntax in C/C++, called at runtime.

As a result of this principle, there are no keywords in Scopes. Every single symbol can be rebound or deleted, globally or just for one scope.

Scopes also supports wildcard syntax macros (wildcard sugars), which can be applied to either any expression or symbol before the expansion begins, and which can be used to implement exceptions to the head dispatch rule. One of these exceptions for instance is infix notation support.

4.7. Infix Expressions

C/C++ offers a fixed set of infix operators which are recognized during parsing and translated to AST nodes right then. They can be used within expressions but must be put in parentheses or separated by semicolon or comma from neighboring expressions in argument or statement lists.

Scopes also offers a set of commonly used infix operators not unlike the ones provided by C, utilizing the same associativity and nearly the same precedence (the << and >> operators use a different precedence), but renaming and adding operators where it improves clarity.

Unlike C/C++, Scopes allows to define new scoped infix operators at the users convenience using define-infix< and define-infix>, as a simple alias to an existing sugar, spice or function.

An infix expression is recognized by looking for an infix definition for the second token of an expression. If a matching definition is found, all tokens within that expression are treated as left/right-hand arguments and operators.

The infix expression must follow the pattern (x0 op x1 op ... op xN) to be recognized. If an odd argument is not a valid infix token, a syntax error will be raised.

Scopes does deliberately not implement any concept of mixed infix, prefix or postfix expressions to keep confusion to a minimum. Even infix expressions can be entirely disabled by replacing the default wildcard sugar.

A special symbol sugar exists which aims to simplify trivial container lookups. An expression like (object . attribute . attribute) can also be written as a single symbol, object.attribute.attribute, which will be expanded to the former form, provided no value is already bound to this symbol in the current scope.

4.8. Declarations, Statements and Expressions

C/C++ distinguishes between three major lexical contexts: declaration level, statement level and expression level.

// declaration level
typedef int MyInt;

// illegal at this level
// printf("hello!\n");

MyInt test (MyInt x) {
    // statement level
    int k =
        // expression level
        x * x
    ;
    int m = ({
        // statement expressions, a GCC extension
        // usage of statements here is legal.
        printf("hello again!\n");
        k * k;
    });
    return m;
}

Scopes does not make such a distinction, and instead treats every declaration as an expression with a result type. The top level of a program is equivalent to its main function:

# the right hand side is not limited to constant expressions.
let MyInt = int

# legal at this level.
print "hello!"

fn test (x)
    let k = (x * x)

    let m =
        do
            # equivalent to statement expressions in GCC.
            print "hello again!"
            k * k
    # even `return` declares an expression of type `noreturn`.
    return m

4.9. Constants and Variables

C/C++ expects named values to be declared with a type. Each value is mutable by default unless qualified by const. Outside of a function it represents a globally accessible value, within a function it represents a stack value.

const int constant = 100;

// a global value mapped to data segment
int variable1 = 0;
int variable2 = 0;

// conceptually a copy operation
const int variable1_copy = variable1;

void test () {
    // conceptually declared on the stack
    // initialization from value conceptually a copy operation
    int variable3 = constant;

    // mutable by default
    variable3 = variable2;

    printf("%i\n", constant);
    printf("%i\n", variable1);
    printf("%i\n", variable2);
    printf("%i\n", variable3);
}

In Scopes, expressions are bound to names using let. let does only perform the binding. The type of the value and where it is stored depends entirely on the expression that produces it. The local and global forms must be used to explicitly allocate a stack or data segment value:

# a compile time constant integer
let constant = 100

# not a global value, but allocated on the main function's stack
local variable1 = 0
# a global value mapped to data segment
global variable2 = 0

# variable1 is bound to another name - not a copy operation.
  variable1_copy remains mutable.
let variable1_copy = variable1

fn test ()
    # just a rebind - not a copy operation
    let variable3 = constant
    # variable3 is not a reference, so can not be mutated.
      we should have declared it as local for that.
    # variable3 = variable2

    print constant
    # illegal: variable1 is a stack variable outside of function scope
    # print variable1
    # legal: variable2 is a global
    print variable2
    # variable3 is a constant
    print variable3

Unlike in C/C++, declarations of the same name within the same scope are also permitted, and the previous binding is still accessible during evaluation of the right-hand side:

let x = 1
# x is now bound to the value 3
let x = (x + 2)
# x is now bound to a string
let x = "test"

4.10. Lexical Scope

Both C/C++ and Scopes employ lexical scope to control visibility of bound names.

Unlike in C/C++, lexical scope is a first order object in Scopes and can be used by new declarative forms as well as to export symbols from modules:

let scope =
    do
        let x = 1
        let y = "test"

        # build a new scope from locally bound names
        locals;

# scope is constant if all values in it are constant
static-assert (constant? scope)
# prints 1 "test"
print scope.x scope.y

4.11. Macros

The C preprocessor provides the only means of using macros in C/C++ code. The latest edition permits variadic arguments, but reflection and conditional behavior can only be achieved through tricks. C macros are also unable to bind names in a way that prevents collision with existing names in scope, which is called “unhygienic” in the Scheme community. Macros are able to transparently override call expressions and symbolic tokens, and do not have to respect semantic structure.

As a Scheme-like, Scopes’ macro facilities are extensive.

Sugars are functions able to rewrite expressions at the syntactical level during syntax expansion. Wildcard sugars can rewrite symbols or even just parts of symbols. They are evaluated top-down and can produce hygienic and unhygienic expressions.

Spices are evaluated bottom-up during typechecking and receive eagerly evaluated arguments. Both forms can generate new code in the form of untyped IL.

Hygienic macro functions are provided by the inline form, which is expanded during typechecking. Inlines must respect semantic structure and are not programmable, but can make use of spices to perform reflection and conditional code generation, as well as generate new functions.

4.12. Templates

In C, every function must be typed as it is (forward) declared. C++ introduces the concept of templates, which are functions that can be lazily typed. As of C++14, templates can now also deduct their return type. Templates can be forward declared, but forward declared templates with automatic return type can not be instantiated.

// forward declaration of typed function
int typed_forward_decl (int x, const char *text, bool toggle);

// declaration of typed function
int typed_decl (int x, const char *text, bool toggle) {
    return 0;
}

// forward declaration of template
template<typename A, typename B, typename C>
void lazy_typed_decl_returns_void (A a, B b, C c);

void test1 () {
    // forward declaration can be used
    lazy_typed_decl_returns_void(1,2,3);
}

// forward declaration of template with auto return type
template<typename A, typename B, typename C>
auto lazy_typed_decl_returns_auto (A a, B b, C c);

void test2 () {
    // error: use before deduction of ‘auto’
    lazy_typed_decl_returns_auto(1,2,3);
}

// implementation of template with auto return type
template<typename A, typename B, typename C>
auto lazy_typed_decl_returns_auto (A a, B b, C c) {
    return 0;
}

In Scopes, all function declarations are lazily typed, and static-typify can be used to instantiate concrete functions at compile time. Forward declarations are possible but must be completed within the same scope:

# forward declarations can not be typed
#fn typed_forward_decl

fn typed_decl (x text toggle)
    return 0

# create typed function
let typed_decl = (static-typify typed_decl i32 rawstring bool)

# forward declaration of template has no parameter list
fn lazy_typed_decl_returns_void

# test1 is another template
fn test1 ()
    # legal because test1 is not instantiated yet
    # note: lazy_typed_decl_returns_void must be implemented before
            test1 is instantiated.
    lazy_typed_decl_returns_void 1 2 3

# forward declaration of template with auto return type
  note that all our forward declarations have no return type
fn lazy_typed_decl_returns_auto

fn test2 ()
    # legal because test2 is not instantiated yet
    lazy_typed_decl_returns_auto 1 2 3

# implementation of template with auto return type
fn lazy_typed_decl_returns_auto (a b c)
    return 0

# instantiate test2
let test2 = (static-typify test2)

4.13. Variadic Arguments

C introduced variadic arguments at runtime using the va_list type, in order to support variadic functions like printf(). C++ improved upon this concept by introducing variadic template arguments. It remains difficult to perform reflection on variadic arguments, such as iteration or targeted capturing.

Functions in Scopes do not support runtime variadic functions (although calling variadic C functions is supported), but support compile time variadic arguments. See the following example:

# any trailing parameter ending in '...' is interpreted to be variadic.
fn takes-varargs (x y rest...)
    # count the number of arguments in rest...
    let numargs = (va-countof rest...)

    # use let's support for variadic values to split arguments into
      first argument and remainder.
    let z rest... = rest...

    # get the 5th argument from rest...
    let fifth_arg = (va@ 5 rest...)

    # iterate through all arguments, perform an action on each one
      and store the result in a new variadic value.
    let processed... =
        va-map
            inline (value)
                print value
                value + 1
            rest...

    # return variadic result as multiple return values
    return processed...

4.14. Overloading

C++ allows overloading of functions by specifying multiple functions with the same name but different type signatures. On call, the call arguments types are used to deduce the correct function to use.

int overloaded (int a, int b) { return 0; }
int overloaded (int a, float b) { return 1; }
int overloaded (float a, int b) { return 2; }

// this new form of overloaded could be specified in a different file
int overloaded (float a, float b) { return 3; }

Scopes offers a similar mechanism as a library form, but requires that overloads must be grouped at the time of declaration. The first form that matches argument types implicitly is selected, in order of declaration:

fn... overloaded
case (a : i32, b : i32)
    return 0
case (a : i32, b : f32)
    return 1
case (a : f32, b : i32)
    return 2

# expanding overloaded in a different file, limited to local scope

# overwrites the previous declaration
fn... overloaded
case using overloaded # chains the previous declaration
case (a : f32, b : f32) # will be tried last
    return 3

4.15. Code Generation

In C/C++, files are interpreted either as translation units (the root file of a compiler invocation) or as header files, which are type and forward declarations that typically do not generate code on their own, embedded into translation units. Fully declared functions are guaranteed to generate code, and will only be optimized out at linking stage.

In Scopes, every invocation of sc_compile, typically through compile or import, opens a new translation unit. Function declarations are template declarations, so they do not generate any code, nor does any other compile time construct. Instantiating a function through static-typify does also not guarantee that code will be generated. Only actual first time use will generate code for whatever translation unit is currently active, and make that code available to every future translation unit. This guarantees that a particular template is only instantiated once.

When objects are compiled through compile-object, only functions exported through the scope argument are guaranteed to be included, and all functions they depend on. Objects are complete. Previously generated functions will not be externally defined, but will be redefined as private functions within the objects translation unit. The same rules apply to global variables.

4.16. Using Third Party Libraries

With C/C++, third party libraries are typically built in a separate build process provided by the libraries developer, either as static or shared libraries. Their definitions are made available through include files that one can embed into one’s own translation units using the #include preprocessing command. The libraries’ precompiled symbols are merged into the executable during linking or at runtime, either when the process is mapped into memory or function pointers are loaded manually from the library.

Scopes provides a module system which allows shipping libraries as sources. Any scopes source file can be imported as a module. When a module is first imported using import or using import, its main body is compiled and executed. The returned scope which contains the modules’ exported functions and types is cached under the modules name and returned to the importing program. The modules’ functions and types are now available to the program and can be embedded directly into its translation unit. No code is generated until the libraries’ functions are actually used.

Scopes also supports embedding existing third party C libraries in the classical way, using include, load-library and load-object:

# how to create trivial bindings for a C library

# include thirdparty.h and make its declarations available as a scope object
let thirdparty =
    include "thirdparty.h"
        options "-I" (module-dir .. "/../include") # specify options for clang

# access a define from thirdparty.h
if thirdparty.define.USE_SHARED_LIBRARY
    # load thirdparty as a shared library from system search paths
    if (operating-system == 'windows)
        load-library "thirdparty.dll"
    else
        load-library "libthirdparty.so"
else
    # load thirdparty as a static library from an object file
    load-object (module-dir .. "/../lib/thirdparty.o")

# assemble a ready-to-use scope object for this module
do
    # import only symbols beginning with thirdparty
    using thirdparty.define filter "^THIRDPARTY_.*$"
    using thirdparty.typedef filter "^thirdparty_.*$"
    using thirdparty.const filter "^thirdparty_.*$"
    using thirdparty.extern filter "^thirdparty_.*$"

    locals;

Externals using C signatures can also be defined and used directly:

let puts = (extern 'puts (function i32 rawstring))
# definition becomes immediately available
puts "hello\n"

4.17. Type Primitives

C/C++’s type primitives map to Scopes in the following way:

C++ Scopes
bool bool
int8_t i8
int16_t i16
int32_t i32
int64_t i64
uint8_t u8
uint16_t u16
uint32_t u32
uint64_t u64
float f32
double f64
typedef U V let V = U
using V = U let V = U
const T * @ T
T * mutable (@ T)
const T & & T
T & mutable (& T)
std::array<T, N> array T N
std::tuple<T0, ..., Tn> tuple T0 ... Tn
const T [N] __attribute__((aligned (A))) vector T N

4.18. Initializer Lists

Scopes provides convenience constructors for arrays and tuple types, as well as a special initializer type called typeinit, which can be used to initialize fields without knowing their type. typeinit stores passed arguments in a temporary closure which is turned into a constructor call as soon as the typeinit instance is cast to its target type during assignment.

C++ Scopes
std::array<T> _ = { arg0, ..., argN }; arrayof T arg0 ... argN
std::tuple<auto> _ = { arg0, ..., argN }; tupleof arg0 ... argN
x.member = { arg0, ..., argN }; x.member = (typeinit arg0 ... argN)

4.19. Structs

Scopes supports structs in a format not unlike the one C/C++ provides, but does not permit composition by inheritance. Composition must be strictly explicit.

Compare this C++ example, which makes use of recently introduced default initializers and designated initializers:

struct Example {
    int value;
    // default initializers only supported in C++11 and up
    bool choice = false;
    const char *text = "";
};

// designated initializers only supported in C99
Example example = { .value = 100, .text = "test" };

to this equivalent declaration in Scopes:

using import struct

struct Example plain
    value : i32
    # type can be deduced from initializer
    choice = false
    text : rawstring = ""

global example : Example
    value = 100
    text = "test"

4.20. Methods

C++ introduced methods as a way to associate functions directly with structs and classes. In C++, the argument referencing the object argument is hidden and implicitly bound to the this symbol. Members and other methods of the struct are in the lexical scope of the method.

// this example is a little contrived for illustrational purposes
struct Example {
    int value;

    // a method declaration
    int get_add_value (int n) {
        return this->value + n;
    }

    // another method declaration
    void print_value_plus_one () {
        printf("%i\n", get_add_value(1));
    }
};

void use_example (Example example) {
    example.print_value_plus_one();
}

Scopes supports methods in a more explicit way that makes refactorings from function to method and back easier, both in declaration and in usage:

struct Example plain
    value : i32

    # note the explicit presence of the object parameter
    fn get_add_value (self n)
        self.value + n

    fn print_value_plus_one (self)
        print ('get_add_value self 1)

fn use_example (example)
    'print_value_plus_one example

What happens here is that we call a quoted symbol with arguments. The call handler for the Symbol type rewrites 'methodname object arg0 ... argN as (getattr (typeof object) 'methodname) object arg0 ... argN.

4.21. Virtual Methods

As Scopes doesn’t provide a native abstraction for composition by inheritance, virtual methods are not supported out of the box, but can be implemented through its extensive domain specific language support.

4.22. Classes

C++’s concept of classes is only indirectly supported through structs in Scopes. Access modifiers are not available, but methods can be made “private” by keeping their definition local. Fields can not be hidden, but they can be visibly marked as private by convention:

struct Example plain
    # an underscore indicates that the attribute is not meant to be
      accessed directly.
    _value : i32

    fn get_add_value (self n)
        self._value + n

    fn print_value_plus_one (self)
        # use get_add_value directly
        print (get_add_value self 1)

    # unbind get_add_value from local scope to prevent it
      from being added as an attribute to Example.
    unlet get_add_value

fn use_example (example)
    # this operation is not possible from here:
    # 'get_add_value example 1
    'print_value_plus_one example

4.23. Template Classes

C++ supports generics in the form of template classes, which are lazily typed structs.

template<typename T, int x>
struct Example {
    T value;

    bool compare () {
        value == x;
    }
};

Scopes leverages constant expression folding and compile time closures to trivially provide this feature via inline functions:

# a function decorator memoizes the result so we get the same type for
  the same arguments
@@ memo
inline Example (T x)
    # construct type name from string
    struct ("Example<" .. (tostring T) .. ">")
        value : T

        fn compare ()
            value == x

Partial template specialization allows to choose different implementations depending on instantiation arguments. The same mechanism is also used to do type based dispatch. Here is an example:

#include <stdlib.h>

template<typename T> struct to_int {
    // linker complains: missing symbol
    int operator()(T x);
};

template<> struct to_int<int> {
    int operator()(int x) {
        return x;
    }
};

template<> struct to_int<const char *> {
    int operator()(const char *x) {
        return atoi(x);
    }
};

In Scopes, it is not necessary to create types in order to build single type based dispatch operators. Here are three ways to supply the same functionality:

include "stdlib.h"

# a function that generates a function
@@ memo
inline to_int1 (T)
    static-match T
    case i32 _
    case rawstring atoi
    default
        static-error "unsupported type"

# a function that performs the operation directly
inline to_int2 (x)
    let T = (typeof x)
    static-if (T == i32) x
    elseif (T == rawstring) (atoi x)
    else
        static-error "unsupported type"

# using the overloaded function abstraction
fn... to_int3
case (x : i32,) x
case (x : rawstring,) (atoi x)

4.24. Constructors

Scopes supports construction from type through the __typecall special method. A type implementing a method under this name becomes callable. By convention, it is used to construct both specialized types and to instantiate a type. Its first argument is the name of the type that has been called.

Here is an example that changes the default constructor of a struct:

struct Example plain
    _value : i32

    inline __typecall (cls n)
        # within the context of a struct definition, super-type is bound
          to the super type of the struct we are defining. In this case
          the supertype is `CStruct`.
        super-type.__typecall cls
            _value = (n * n)

4.25. Destructors

C++ provides so-called destructors which permit to execute code when a value goes out of scope. Destructors typically free resources, but can also be used to switch contexts.

struct Handle {
    void *_handle;

    // constructor
    Handle(void *handle) : _handle(handle) {}
    // destructor
    ~Handle() {
        printf("destroying handle\n");
        free(_handle);
    }
};

Values of non-plain type, so-called unique types, are guaranteed to be referenced only at a single point within a program. Because of this guarantee, a unique type is able to supply a destructor through the __drop special method that is automatically called when the value goes out of scope:

struct Handle
    _handle : voidstar

    # constructor
    inline __typecall (cls handle)
        super-type.__typecall cls handle

    # destructor
    inline __drop (self)
        print "destroying handle"
        free self._handle
        return;

4.26. Operator Overloading

C++ allows overloading type operators through special methods defined either in a struct, class or namespace.

class Accumulable {
public:
    // overload the addition operator for class + class
    Accumulable operator +(Accumulable x) {
        return Accumulable(this->value + x.value);
    }
    // another overload for class + int
    Accumulable operator +(int x) {
        return Accumulable(this->value + x);
    }

    Accumulable (int _value) : value(_value) {}

    int value;
};

// a third overload for supporting int + class
Accumulable operator +(Accumulable a, int b) {
    return Accumulable(a.value + b.value);
}

Scopes supports operator overloading through informally specified operator protocols that that any type can support by exposing dispatch methods bound to special attributes. See this equivalent example, which applies not only to structs, but any type definition:

struct Accumulable
    # one compile time function for all left-hand side variants receives
        left-hand and right-hand types and returns a function which can
        perform the operation or void.
    inline __+ (cls T)
        # test for type + type
        static-if (T == this-type)
            # return new closure
            inline (self other)
                this-type (self.value + other.value)
        # if T can be implicitly cast to i32, support it
        elseif (imply? T i32)
            inline (self other)
                this-type (self.value + other)

    # another function covers all right-hand side variants
    inline __r+ (T cls)
        static-if (imply? T i32)
            inline (self other)
                this-type (self + other.value)

    value : i32

    inline __repr (self)
        tostring self.value

4.27. Standard Library

C and C++ support an extensive standard library, covering many system functions and algorithmic container types.

Scopes supports the C standard library through the clang bridge accessible by the include mechanism.

Only a few containers from the C++ standard library have functional equivalents in Scopes yet. Here is a comparison table:

C++ Scopes
std::array array
std::tuple tuple
std::vector Array.GrowingArray
std::unordered_set Map.Set
std::unordered_map Map.Map
std::unique_ptr Box.Box
std::function Capture.capture

4.28. Memory Handling & Management

C and C++ use a stack based machine model that is compatible with native targets. Within this model, mutable memory can be pre-allocated globally, on the function’s stack and in main memory, called the “heap”.

Scopes uses an identical model. No garbage collection is employed at runtime.

A comparison of concepts by example:

C/C++ Scopes
T value; (globally) global value : T
T value; (locally) local value : T
T values[size]; (static size) local value : (array T size)
T values[size]; (dynamic size) let value = (alloca-array T size)
alloca(sizeof(T)) alloca T
alloca(sizeof(T) * size) alloca-array T size
malloc(sizeof(T)) malloc T
malloc(sizeof(T) * size) malloc-array T size

In addition, C++ allows to manage memory by recursively invoking a type-defined destructor on stack values when exiting a bracketed scope, as well as on globals when the program is exited or a library unloaded. Based on this mechanism and intricate elision rules, various smart pointer types are implemented, of which the most useful is std::unique_ptr, which is a type that manages the lifetime of a single heap value until it goes out of scope.

In Scopes, types can be defined as unique, which instructs scope to manage the lifetime of values in a similar fashion as C++ does. In addition, weak references to these values (direct or indirect) can be borrowed as “views”, which become inaccessible as soon as the viewed unique value goes out of scope. This mechanism incurs no performance cost at runtime. See Destructors for an example.

4.29. Closures

C++ supports runtime closures through the std::function type, which allows to implicitly bind values to a function, so that when the function is called, the bound values become available to the function without having to pass them as arguments. In functional programming, this process can be used to implement currying.

void print_bound_constant () {
    const int y = 42;
    // capture `y` along with the function
    auto f = [y](int x) -> int { return x + y; }
    // prints 65
    std::cout << f(23) << std::endl;
}

void print_bound_value (int y) {
    // capture `y` along with the function
    auto f = [y](int x) -> int { return x + y; }
    // prints 23+y
    std::cout << f(23) << std::endl;
}

Scopes supports compile time closures natively, as demonstrated previously, but runtime closures are also supported through so-called captures. Above example would be translated as follows:

fn print_bound_constant ()
    let y = 42
    # capture constant `y` along with the function
    fn f (x)
        x + y
    # prints 65
    print (f 23)

fn print_bound_value (y)
    # capture variable `y` along with the function
    capture f (x) {y}
        x + y
    # prints 65
    print (f 23)

4.30. Loops

C offers two structured control flows for loops which depend on mutation of an exit variable, namely while and for. In addition, C++11 introduced the range-based for loop, which provides syntactical sugar for iterating elements of a collection.

// C-style for-loop implementing a counter
for (int i = 0; i < 10; ++i) {
    printf("%i\n", i);
}

// C-style for-loop implementing an iterator
for (iter_t it = first(container), int k = 0; is_valid(it); it = next(it), k++) {
    process(k, at(it));
}

// while-loop implementing a counter
int i = 0;
while (i < 10) {
    printf("%i\n", i);
    ++i;
}

// range-based for-loop implementing an iterator (C++17 form)
for (auto &&[first,second] : map) {
    process(first, second);
}

Scopes defines a single builtin primitive for loops which leverages backpropagation of immutable values, upon which various other library forms are implemented:

# implementing a counter using the range-based form
for i in (range 10)
    print i

# implementing an iterator using the loop primitive and immutable values
loop (it k = (first container) 0)
    if (is_valid it)
        process k (at it)
        repeat (next it) (k + 1)
    else
        # break can return values
        break it k

# implementing a counter using a while loop and mutation
local i = 0
while (i < 10)
    print i
    i += 1

# range-based form implementing an iterator
for key value in map
    process key value

In addition, with the fold .. for .. in form, Scopes combines both immutable loop and range-based form.

4.31. Targeting Shader Programs

C/C++ do not offer a native way to compile functions to shader code. However, there exist various third party solutions to provide equivalent features. The GLSL (GL shader language) offers a C-like domain specific language to write shaders that has enough overlap with C/C++ in order to allow users to share definitions.

Scopes is able to natively compile functions to SPIR-V as well as GLSL at compile time using the builtins compile-spirv and compile-glsl respectively, allowing the CPU and GPU side to share all definitions. To aid in this task, Scopes provides the glm and glsl modules, which implement native GLSL types and functions.

See the following example implementing and compiling a pixel shader:

using import glm
using import glsl

in uv : vec2 (location = 0)
out color : vec4 (location = 1)
fn main ()
    color = (vec4 (uv * 0.5 + 0.5) 0 1)

print
    compile-glsl 330 'fragment
        static-typify main

The program output is as follows:

#version 330
#ifdef GL_ARB_shading_language_420pack
#extension GL_ARB_shading_language_420pack : require
#endif

in vec2 uv;
layout(location = 1) out vec4 color;

void main()
{
    vec2 _14 = (uv * vec2(0.5)) + vec2(0.5);
    vec4 _19 = vec4(0.0);
    _19.x = _14.x;
    vec4 _21 = _19;
    _21.y = _14.y;
    vec4 _22 = _21;
    _22.z = 0.0;
    vec4 _24 = _22;
    _24.w = 1.0;
    color = _24;
}

4.32. Exceptions

C provides only a primitive kind of unstructured exception handling via the setjmp() and longjmp() functions provided by setjmp.h.

C++ provides structured and polymorphic exception handling at runtime. Any value can be thrown as an exception using the throw keyword, and caught using the try .. catch form.

struct myexception {
    const char *what;
};

void main () {
    try {
        // throw value of type myexception
        myexception exc = { "an error occurred" };
        throw exc;
    } catch (myexception& e) {
        // print content to screen
        std::cout << e.what << std::endl;
    }
}

Scopes supports a form of structured exception handling that is monomorphic, light weight and C compatible. A value of any type can be raised using the raise form, and handled using the try .. except form:

using import struct

struct myexception
    what : string

try
    # raise value of type myexception
    raise (myexception "an error occurred")
except (e)
    # print content to screen
    print e.what

The presence of an exception modifies the return type of a function to a hidden tagged union type which returns which path the function returned on, and both return and exception value, of which only the appropriate value has been set.

Monomorphic means that in contrast to C++, Scopes does not allow more than one exception type per expression to be backpropagated. If you wish to support a polymorphic type, you can use enum to define a tagged union type which can be dispatched to the correct exception type.

4.33. ABI Compliance

Scopes aims to achieve full compliance with the C ABI used on x64 platforms for Linux, MacOS X and Windows, defaulting to the cdecl calling convention. Other calling conventions are not yet supported. Any Scopes function can be passed as a callback to a C library, and C functions can be called from Scopes without any additional hinting required.

All types aim to follow the same alignment and size conventions as C types, including plain unions.

On Windows, Scopes is built for and communicates with system resources through mingw64. Operating with WINAPI functions directly has not been extensively tested yet.